The latest research articles & scientific papers on NMN (nicotinamide mononucleotide) and NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide).


NMN is a nucleotide derived from ribose and nicotinamide.

NMN is a derivative of niacin - a form of vitamin B3, an essential human nutrient.

People have enzymes that can use NMN to produce NAD.


  1. NMN enters cells via newly discovered pathway
  2. Rewinding the clock with NMN
  3. NMN: impairment of and endothelial NAD+ - H2S signaling is a reversible cause of vascular aging
  4. NMN: improves blood flow similar to exercise - by promoting sirtuins
  5. NMN reduces signs of aging in healthy mice
  6. Cardioprotection by NMN: involvement of glycolysis and acidic PH

1)  NMN enters cells via newly discovered pathway


A scientific study (Nature Metabolism 9 Jan 2019) showing how NMN enters the cell becoming NAD+ without converting into NR.

The NAD+ coenzyme is fundamental to combat age-related diseases

NAD+ naturally declines with age in animals and humans.

This decline contributes to many age-related diseases and metabolic conditions.


2)  NMN:  rewinding the clock


NMN can restore 

  • Blood vessel growth
  • Muscle vitality
  • Can boost exercise endurance in aging animals


Harvard Medical School discovered

NMN restored blood vessel growth in mice   

“If we are as old as our arteries…
 Could reversing the aging of blood vessels
 be the key to restoring youthful vitality?”


3)  NMN: impairment of endothelial NAD+ - H2S signaling is a reversible cause of vascular aging

NMN prevents the decline of physical endurance and muscle strength.


The natural decline in capillary density and blood flow causes mortality and morbidity.

David Sinclair - senior author and co-director of the Paul F. Glenn center for the biology of aging at Harvard Medical School - states:


“Loss of blood flow seems to be one of the early things that leads to diseases of aging(..)
As organs like the brain and muscles lose their [blood] perfusion,
they no longer function effectively.”


Mice were given NMN to stimulate the formation of tiny blood vessels in cells that form the muscle.

As a result, the mice given NMN were:

  • FASTER ON THEIR TREADMILL RUN BY 60% compared to the other animals who did not get the molecule.


4)  NMN: Improves blood flow similar to exercise - by promoting Sirtuins:

“Here we have the potential of having
a pill which gives the benefits of running 10 miles a day
without having to do that(..)
It’s not just about trying to replace exercise when you are middle-aged,
but giving you the benefits of exercise when you are too old to be able to do it.”

 – Dr David Sinclair




In aging mice NMN effectively improved:

  • Weight gain
  • Energy metabolism
  • Physical activity
  • Insulin sensitivity
  • Plasma lipid profile
  • Eye function   


5)  NMN reduces signs of aging in healthy mice

Our body cells’ ability to produce energy declines with age.

Suggesting that the loss of efficiency in the body’s energy supply chain is a key driver of the aging process.

This study showed that supplementing healthy mice with NMN can compensate for the loss of energy production, reducing signs of aging, such as weight gain, loss of insulin sensitivity and declines in physical activity.

When NMN was dissolved in drinking water and given to mice, it appeared in the bloodstream in less than three minutes.

It was also found that NMN in the blood is quickly converted to NAD+ in multiple tissues.

Researchers found a variety of beneficial effects of NMN supplementation in older mice including in:

  • Skeletal muscle
  • Liver function
  • Bone density
  • Eye function
  • Insulin sensitivity
  • Immune function
  • Body weight and physical activity levels.


6)  Cardioprotection by NMN: involvement of glycolysis and acidic PH

In this study in mice, researchers hypothesized that NMN may confer cardiovascular protection in part via direct stimulation of cardiac glycolysis.

It found that NMN was cardioprotective when delivered acutely at reperfusion (recovery 39±8%).

In conclusion, acute cardioprotective benefits of NMN are mediated in part via glycolytic stimulation, with the downstream protective mechanism involving enhanced ATP synthesis during ischemia and/or enhanced acidosis during reperfusion.



Oral NMN capsules are common place, but sublingual delivery is strongly recommended

  • It allows the compound to be absorbed into the blood vessels underneath the tongue
  • Enabling NMN to avoid digestion in the gastrointestinal tract and faster delivery to the bloodstream.